Sources and hazards of pollutants
1, oxygen and nitrogen dioxide on the respiratory tract damage. CO in addition to acute poisoning, the chronic effects of damage to the myocardium and central nervous system. The particulate matter contains a large amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), many of which are carcinogens. For example, some metabolic intermediates of 3,4-benzo [a] pyrene are very carcinogenic. From 1775 P. Porter found that the British sweep chimney workers prone to scrotal cancer began, people gradually recognized that there are carcinogens in coal tar. In the 1980s, the study of the causes of high incidence of lung cancer in Xuanwei County, Yunnan Province, proved that the flue gas in the local coal burned a large number of carcinogenic PAH. Another epidemiological survey found that one of the causes of lung cancer among farmers in northern non-lung cancer areas was the burning of honeycomb at home in winter without the installation of chimneys. Liquefied petroleum gas combustion of particulate matter in the dichloromethane extract containing nitro polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which is a strong mutant. The same time as
2, some areas of coal contains more fluorine, arsenic and other inorganic pollutants, combustion can pollute the indoor air and food, inhalation or ingestion, can cause fluoride poisoning or arsenic poisoning. The same time as
3, tune. Cooking fumes are not only hampering general hygiene, but more importantly, they contain mutations. The same time as
4, is not clean, allergenic organisms breeding. The main indoor sensitizers are fungi and dust mites. Mainly from poultry, dust and so on. Fungi breeding ability is very strong, as long as a slight moisture and organic matter, that can grow. Such as glass surfaces, household appliances, walls, slabs, and even jet petrol, can also grow. Dust mite hi moist and warm, mainly grown in dust, mattresses, pillows, sofa chairs, clothes, food and so on. Whether it is live mites or dead mites, and even its molting or excreta, are antigenic, can cause asthma or urticaria. The same time as
5, people spread pathogens. Patients with respiratory infections can spread pathogens to others by exhaled breath, sneezing, coughing, sputum and nose. The same time as
6, indoor use of copiers, electrostatic precipitators and other equipment to produce ozone (O3). O3 is a strong oxidizing agent, a small amount of ozone can be sterilized and can remove the indoor odor, but excessive ozone on the respiratory tract to stimulate the role, in particular, can damage the alveoli. According to the California Air Resource Board (California Air Resource Board) provides that the indoor ozone concentration should not be ≥ 0.05ppm, otherwise it will cause harm to the human body. The same time as
7, the lack of negative ions in the room. Household electrical appliances generated by electromagnetic radiation is positive ions on the human body damage. If the radiation intensity is large, will make people dizzy, addicted to saliva, weakness, memory loss. So for health should be timely to supplement the indoor air negative ions. Reduce the harm caused by radiation. The same time as
8, indoor dust, burning particles, droplets and other pollutants, and indoor air light ions combined to form heavy ions. The former can only stay in the dirty air for 1 minute, while the latter can be retained for 1 hour, thus strengthening the negative effects of positive ions: headache, upset, fatigue, blood pressure, apathetic, attention deficit, reduced ability to work , Insomnia and so on. The same time as
9, the contents of the harmful elements of the direct distribution of the room there are many objects and supplies, which itself contains a variety of harmful factors, once exposed to the air, it will be distributed out of harm.
Mainly from the following aspects:
10, material. Some cement, brick, lime and other building materials in the raw materials, itself contains radioactive radium. After the completion of the building, radium decay radon (222Rn) and its daughter will be released into the indoor air, into the human respiratory tract, is one of the causes of lung cancer. Outdoor air radon content of about 10Bq / m3 below, indoor serious pollution can be more than a few times. The United States by radon and its daughters caused by the death of lung cancer over 1 to 2 million.
11, urea - formaldehyde foam insulation material (UFFI) housing, can release a lot of formaldehyde, sometimes up to 10mg / m3 or more. Formaldehyde has a significant stimulating effect on the eyes, throat, trachea stimulation is great; in the body can form metamorphosis, causing bronchial asthma and skin allergies; can damage the liver, especially those who have history of hepatitis, live in UFFI After the activities of the house, easy to relapse of hepatitis. Long-term inhalation of low concentrations of formaldehyde, can cause headaches, dizziness, nausea, difficulty breathing, decreased lung function, neurasthenia, immune function is also affected. Animal test can induce nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Has not yet seen the epidemiological evidence of human carcinogenesis. The same time as
12, building materials containing asbestos, can emit asbestos fiber. Asbestos can cause lung cancer, and chest, peritoneal mesothelioma. The same time as
13, decorative items and decorations. Commonly used in the floor leather, floor tiles, chemical fiber carpets, plastic wallpaper, insulation materials, urea - formaldehyde resin adhesive and the adhesive with the fiberboard, plywood made of furniture, etc. can release a variety of Volatile organic compounds, mainly formaldehyde. China's Shenyang City, a new high-level hotel, formaldehyde concentration of up to 1.11mg / m3, ordinary living room after the new decoration up to 0.17mg / m3 or so, later reduced. In addition, some products can also release benzene, toluene, xylene, CS2, trichloromethane, trichlorethylene, chlorobenzene and so on no less than 100 kinds of volatile organic compounds. Some can damage the liver, kidney, bone marrow, blood, respiratory system, nervous system, immune system, and some can even sensitize, carcinogenic. The same time as
14, life and office supplies. Such as cosmetics, detergents, detergents, disinfectants, pesticides, textiles, inks, paints, dyes, coatings, etc. will emit formaldehyde and other types of volatile organic compounds, surfactants and so on. These can affect the body through the respiratory tract and skin.
Air purification precautions
Since indoor air pollution is not a problem that can be solved at all times, especially for those who have used the unreasonable materials to renovate the house, it is impractical to refurbish, and in this case only some of the details of everyday life Take care to minimize and avoid indoor air pollution:
1) Ventilation is the most economical way, regardless of whether there are people in the house, should be as much ventilation as possible, on the one hand it is conducive to indoor pollution emissions, on the other hand can decorate the material in the release of toxic gases as soon as possible;
2) to maintain the indoor environment a certain degree of humidity and temperature, humidity and temperature is too high, most of the pollutants from the decoration materials in the distribution of fast, which in the room was unfavorable, while high humidity is conducive to bacteria and other microbial reproduction. But no one in the house, such as travel when you can take some measures to improve the humidity:
3) When using pesticides, incense and deodorant, these substances have a certain effect on indoor pests and odors, but they also cause some harm to the human body. Especially in the use of wet, the resulting spray-like particles can absorb a large number of harmful substances into the body, the harm than the dry with more serious;
4) try to avoid smoking in the room, it not only harm itself, but also on the surrounding population have a greater harm.
5) In the case of economic conditions permit, it is best to install the air in the indoor ventilation purification system, because the system is fully functional, the effect is good, the equipment will be outdoor fresh air after multiple filtration, purification, humidification, heat exchange , Photocatalyst sterilization, anion and other oxygen treatment and then sent into the room, while the indoor pollution of harmful gases after purification from the outdoor, is the traditional air conditioning ventilation and ventilation ventilation innovation, so as to achieve energy efficient, two-way environmental The.